Friday, December 12, 2014

Big Spring Canyon, Lost Canyon Loop: Needles District of Canyonlands National Park

Essence: Three enrapturing stone passes on the circuit. Miles of sandstone expanse and bench walking, smooth-walled amphitheaters and vistas of pinnacle multitudes. Three riparian biozones. This hike compliments the Druid Arch venture which features passageways. Together, they assemble the primary landscape elements in Needles.

Walk on one big rock for most of the day.

Travel: Coming from Durango, zero-out your trip meter in Monticello, UT. Travel north on US 191 toward Moab. At Church Rock, 14 miles, turn left/west on Utah State Route 211 (40 miles south of Moab). Expect cows and deer to encroach on the road. Newspaper Rock petroglyph site is at 26.1 miles. Enter the park at 45.3 miles. The Visitor Center is at 48 miles. At 51.2 miles, turn left at the sign for Squaw Flat Campground A. The Squaw Flat Trailhead is near the end of the road. There are bathrooms and potable water. Allow a solid three hours from Durango.
Fee Information. The Visitor Center is closed December through February. Fees are self-pay in winter. Restrooms are open 24/7, year-round.
Squaw Flat Campground: There are 26 spacious and spectacular sites available on a first-come, first-served basis. With climbing features at every site, this is paradise for children. Bathrooms, fire grates, picnic tables, tent pads and water are available year-round. Sites are limited to 10 people and 2 vehicles. Squaw Flat fills nearly every day March-June, and September-October. Campground information.
Distance and Elevation Gain: 10.2 miles; 1,340 feet of elevation gain
Time: 4:30 to 6:15
Difficulty: Trail and cairned route; navigation is moderate, must be able to follow cairns and read the map; mild exposure, avoid when rock is wet, sticky soles are helpful; Class 2+ scrambling
Map: Trails Illustrated, Needles District: Canyonlands National Park No. 313
Latest Date Hiked: December 12, 2014
Quote: One further freedom, turn me please to stone. José Knighton
(From: Craig Childs, Soul of Nowhere)
Route: The loop may be hiked in either direction. I have an esthetic preference for going counterclockwise. Referring to the passes as 1, 2, and 3 makes the telling easier.

The Squaw Flat Trailhead, 5,100 feet, is well-marked with ample parking. Study the sign and carry a map. There are 60 miles of interconnecting trails in the Needles District and opportunities exist to shorten this hike if you must. The track gets right down to business and climbs onto a white sandstone bench. All the rock, both the white and pink layers, is Cedar Mesa Sandstone. See Druid Arch for a note on geology. Walk through a fracture with a tunnel-like feel.
(THW, photo)

At 0.4 mile, the trail from Campground B enters on the right. Go left. Take note that the distances given on trail signs are from Campground B which is 0.8 mile from this intersection. I have adjusted the mileages to reflect our start at Campground A. Walking is fast and easy on a smooth, packed earth treadway with good views of the pinnacle lineup.

At 0.8 mile, reach well-signed Big Spring Canyon. My favorite route to Druid Arch branches to the right. Save that for another day and turn left upcanyon. The footpath is crowded with rabbitbrush, prickly pear, oak, euphedra, yucca, piñon/juniper, and Indian rice grass. At 1.7 miles, reach a riparian zone with a diverse mix of tall grasses and willow. The trail follows the canyon, either on the stone floor or just above. It is gorgeous and exciting.

At 2.4 miles, Pass 1 comes into view and at 2.8 miles, enter the sweeping amphitheater. The enchanting walk to the crest is one of my all-time favorites. Cairns lead where the friction pitch is most shallow. While it is never terribly steep, sticky shoes are helpful. In the center of this image, my hiking partner is already closing in on the pass. It is over too quickly.

Scale this small, water-sculpted swale.

Reach Pass 1 at 3.2 miles, 5,555 feet. It is on the divide between Big Spring Canyon and Squaw Canyon. For fun, be sure to climb "The Lump" on the east side of the pass, shown. Behind the photographer is a massive, untroubled, red-walled amphitheater.

This is a wondrous place to explore...provided you don't get lost! Usually there are cairns leading off the pass; in December, 2014, there were none. For the official route, study the image below. It shows the southeast side of the pass with Squaw Canyon in the depression. Drop southeast and then east/left on a contour that feels comfortable to you. This descent is not as protected as the ascent. The colors and textures are wild. Look.

This course will lead you to another friction pitch down a swath of pink slickrock.

Walk down the funnel in the white sandstone, reaching this distinctive trail sign at 3.4 miles. Turn left, toward Squaw Canyon. This image looks up at the descent route from the all-important junction.

The standard route just described has its delights. However, if you want to explore this area more thoroughly, descend south from Pass 1 and intersect the trail going to Elephant Canyon. Go left on that trail until you reach the junction above and then follow the sign to Squaw Canyon. Along the way, carefully leap over this crack and check out the cave-like space.

The Squaw Canyon Trail traipses east along a sandstone bench before making a steep cairned descent into the canyon. The junction with the Lost Canyon Trail is at 4.3 miles. Go right, following the sign to Peekaboo Springs. Note: If one pass was enough, you can bailout here and be back at the trailhead in just 2.8 miles.

Cross the Squaw Canyon wash and clamber up the steep bank. In another 0.2 mile you will come to one of the best features of this hike, a long ascent up a ramp of bedding planes in a narrow, stone halfpipe. This captivating passage emerges onto a slickrock expanse.

The route to Pass 2 is marked with cairns. There are superb views west to Pass 1. Crest the pass at 5.0 miles, 5,477 feet. This divide separates Squaw Canyon and Lost Canyon. (THW, photo)

In this image, the author is on Pass 2. Descend southeast and then east on the white platform. Look into an immense crack at the head of a Lost Canyon tributary. Plunge into the drainageway on descending boulders that were once cap rocks. Watch your step. The exposed pitch is somewhat mitigated by steps cleaved into bedrock in key places. Use them.

The next 2.5 miles wend through alluring Lost Canyon. Walk down the waterway in a narrow gorge with 100 foot walls. The wash widens to make room for a cottonwood grove and diverse array of grasses and horsetail reeds. The coral-colored, sandy path passes by intermittent surface flow, pools and a stone blade.

Intersect the Peekaboo Trail at 7.6 miles. Go left/west. At 8.1 miles, leave the drainage and climb to a broad bench. It narrows substantially just before arriving at a well-secured, vertical ladder. Crest Pass 3 at 8.6 miles, 5,300 feet.

Peekaboo Trail Pass is on the divide between the Lost Canyon and Squaw Canyon drainages. A veritable city of spires is off in the west. The friction descent to a mature piñon/juniper flat is mild.

The treadway is fringed with cryptobiotic soil and Indian rice grass. This image looks back at Pass 3. Turn right/north on the Squaw Canyon Trail at 9.1 miles. There is a final, gentle climb up a stone ridge covered in water pockets. Finish where you started, 10.2 glorious miles later.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Druid Arch: Needles District of Canyonlands National Park

Essence: A whimsical trail through a magical landscape. Forceful and mighty, Druid Arch exerts its penetrating influence on all who approach. Two sky slits in the sandstone monolith have a shocking effect, multiplying the arch's potency. On the way, journey through multiple passageways: narrow fractures, two stone halfpipes, spires, and Elephant Canyon. An option to finish at the Squaw Flat Campground.

Druid Arch presides over its sandstone world. (THW, photo)

Travel: Coming from Durango, zero-out your trip meter in Monticello, UT. Travel north on US 191 toward Moab. At Church Rock, 14 miles, turn left/west on Utah State Route 211 (40 miles south of Moab). Expect abundant cows and deer to encroach on the road. Newspaper Rock petroglyph site is at 26.1 miles. The topography opens and you drive through a Western movie. North and South Six-Shooter Peaks are surrounded by cayenne-colored columnar walls that go on forever. Enter the park at 45.3 miles. The Visitor Center is at 48 miles. The road to Squaw Flat Campground A goes left at 51.2 miles. Stay on the main road, following signs for the Elephant Hill Trailhead. The road turns to dirt at 51.5 miles. It is narrow with tight bends; 2WD vehicles should be able to reach the trailhead at 54.0 miles. There is an outhouse but no water. Allow a solid three hours from Durango.
Fee Information. The Visitor Center is closed December through February. Restrooms are open 24/7, year-round. Fees are self-pay in winter.
Squaw Flat Campground: There are 26 spacious and spectacular sites available on a first-come, first-served basis. With climbing features at every site, this is paradise for children. Bathrooms, fire grates, picnic tables, tent pads and water are available year-round. Sites are limited to 10 people and 2 vehicles. Squaw Flat fills nearly every day March-June, and September-October. Campground information.
Distance and Elevation Gain: 11 miles out-and-back from Elephant Hill TH; 13 miles to return to Squaw Flat Campground A; add 0.5 mile to see the back of the arch; 2,235 feet of elevation gain for the 13.5 mile option
Time: 5:00 to 7:30
Difficulty: Trail and cairn'd route; navigation is moderate, must be able to follow cairns and read the map; no exposure; Class 2+ scrambling; carry all the water you will need
Map: Trails Illustrated, Needles District: Canyonlands National Park No. 313
Latest Date Hiked: December 11, 2014
Quote: The Druid calls to us like a living being. Somehow, I believe it walked across the sea from the Salisbury Plain in search of its own kind. Thomas Holt Ward

Route: Druid Arch is due south from the Elephant Hill TH 5,120'. Passage is well marked but careful attention is necessary to stay on course. Add significant delight by returning to the Squaw Flat Campground, shown on the map below.

 The trail makes a brief and efficient climb on bedrock and up a staircase set into a natural joint.

Emerge on a white sandstone bench. The walking platform, and the red and white banded pillars which rise hundreds of feet above the floor, are Cedar Mesa Sandstone.  Two hundred million years ago this region was a dune field on the eastern edge of a shallow sea. Deposit was predominately from wind-blown sand. The red layer is from periodic floods which carried iron-rich sediments from the Uncompahgre Mountains. The rock sheet was fractured into joints which were eroded into the pinnacles we see on this hike.

The sweeping panorama includes Cathedral Butte, the Six-Shooters, and the La Sal Mountains. The immediate landscape is chaotic. Squat towers are capped with white lintels. The track goes between these smooth rounded forms, traversing around the head of small canyons. We are dependent on the trail to lead us through the mazeway. Walking is easy on bedrock with a sandy coat. Lining the path is fragile cryptobiotic soil.

A view of the Needles opens. The path soon wends amongst them.

At 1.5 miles, the trail from Squaw Flat Campground joins on left. Stay right. Take note of this location for it is the favored option at the end of the hike.

Squeezing between the next joint is like going through a gate. On the other side is a grassland plain ringed with spires. Walking is friendly across the sage/blackbrush flat. Typical plants include yucca, euphedra, prickly pears, piñon/juniper, four-wing saltbush, and Indian rice grass. At 1.7 miles, descend juniper log steps into a long, deep fissure, one of the finest features of the hike. The rift widens into a most beautiful and protected space.

Drop steeply to the floor of Elephant Canyon at 2.1 miles. Here the trail to Chesler Park veers off to the right. Go left up Elephant Canyon. The route follows the drainageway to the arch. Frequently, the track climbs to parallel the wash. Stay in the channel if you wish; there is only one necessary, well-marked bypass. 

The route is more natural the remainder of the way. At 2.9 miles, turn right at a signed junction. Note for long-distance aficionados: From the campground, take the Big Spring Canyon Trail and join our Druid Arch route here. This stem and loop is 15.8 miles, encompassing the finest landscape elements in Needles.

Elephant Canyon just keeps getting better as you go; walk on a sandstone plane.

At 3.4 miles, the Joint Trail to Chesler Park goes right. Stay left in Elephant Canyon. At 3.5 miles, the canyon splits; go left. Cairns point every which way--just stay in the boulder-crowded wash, easily dodging the obstacles.

Deeply incised linear fractures characterize the floor.

Shortly after this landmark come to the one bypass, upcanyon-left, that must be taken to avoid a pouroff and pool. Do a fun, 15 foot scramble. The canyon constricts and rises to meet the bypass trail.

The next segment is so fun it will make you giddy. Scale the stone halfpipe. This friction pitch has been worn slick and smooth by boot and water. This image was taken from the top. (THW, photo)

At 5.0 miles, the north side of the arch's fin finally comes into view, image right. The route leads into the amphitheater to its left.

Climb a talus debris field. A ladder near bottom of the scramble assists.

Reach the Druid Arch platform at 5.4 miles. The sky doors reside in a Cedar Mesa Sandstone fin. Its enormous post and lintel structure is reminiscent of Stonehenge. The arch is doubtlessly named for the Druids to whom Stonehenge is popularly attributed even though its construction predates them by centuries. Regardless, all who visit will viscerally feel the compelling power of this fierce presence. The Druid is shocking in a way that the same obelisk without perforation is not. What makes it stupefying are the slits of sky.

Exploring is limited. I have made more than one unsuccessful attempt to stand inside the arch. Looking at the image below, there is a social trail that wanders to the left. From there, the daring can get on a ledge and gaze straight up the stone. 

The Druid's space is most unusual. Its amphitheater is graced with alcoves and pouroff cascades. Walls are eroding into pinnacles. Spires have soft, rounded crowns. The canyon is tiered with multiple layers of benches. Pigments are soft desert hues, except for the arch which is saturated with iron core and stained with black varnish.

It is possible to view the back of The Druid with a little rummaging around. Descend the talus slope. Just past the ladder, at 5.7 miles, go left on a social trail that swings around to the west. Please stay on trail or rock. It is somewhat difficult to move through this area laced with obstacles. Some tempting routes are quite exposed and should be avoided. Heave up a five foot, overhung pouroff for this shot of the more feminine and sunlit side of the arch.
(THW, photo)

Retrace your steps downcanyon. Climb out of Elephant Canyon. Upon emerging from the lengthy crack, walk a few paces to the left/west for a superior view of Needles.

At 10.0 miles (9.5 if you did not explore the back of the arch), reach the junction with the trail to Squaw Flat Campground. This intersection is 1.5 miles from the Elephant Hill TH and 3.5 miles from the campground. Obviously, this option presents a logistical problem unless you shuttled a vehicle in the morning but I highly recommend this trail. If you must exit at Elephant Hill, at least do a 0.2 mile out-and-back on the Squaw Flat Trail to an enchanting oval arch. Slither through the diminutive window. Snowcapped La Sals are in the distance.

Descend a friction pitch and enter a canyon labyrinth. While climbs in and out of washes are rather steep, overall, walking is fast. Ascend a pink sandstone ridge. Feel the euphoria and freedom that comes from walking on one big swath of slickrock for a mile. Explore, but have a keen awareness of cairns and follow them faithfully. Views are unrestricted. Turn left at Big Spring Canyon. At 13 miles, the trail splits again. Go right toward Campground A.

This hike compliments the Big Spring Canyon and Lost Canyon Loop which features vast sandstone expanses. Together, they assemble the primary landscape elements in Needles.

Friday, October 31, 2014

Arches National Park: Landscape Arch and Double O Arch Via The Primitive Trail

Essence: The short walk from Devils Garden Trailhead to sublime Landscape Arch accommodates people of all ages and abilities. A more natural trail continues to Double O Arch primarily on sandstone. The Primitive Loop lures the hiker into cracks, under arches, and on top of fins. Visit seven named arches and a solitary earth pillar on the longest hiking trail in the park.

Landscape Arch is the longest natural rock span in the world, 306 feet. We are hold-your-breath lucky to be living simultaneously with this fragile aperture. Visit soon.

Travel and Water: From Center Street in Moab, drive 5.0 miles north on Hwy 191 and turn right/east at the sign for Arches National Park. Reset your trip meter at the entrance station. The Visitor Center follows shortly on the right. A 24-hour, year-round outdoor water spigot is located steps from the parking lot on the north side of the building. Devils Garden Trailhead is at the end of the park road at 17.4 miles. The drinking faucet is seasonal. However, there is year-round water in the campground. Although the parking lot is generous, it does fill regularly so arrive early or visit in winter. There are outhouses at the trailhead.
Fee Information
Devils Garden Campground: The campground has 50 individual sites which accommodate up to ten people. Sites may be reserved between March 1st and October 31st. You may, and should, make your reservation six months out. During winter months, 24 sites are available on a first-come, first-served basis. Campground information. To make a reservation, visit
Distance and Elevation Gain: 1.8 miles roundtrip to Landscape Arch; 4.2 miles roundtrip to Double O Arch; 5.2 miles for the Primitive Trail stem and loop; 8.0 miles for the aggregate of spur trails. Elevation gain is approximately 1,000 feet for the 8 mile option.
Roundtrip Time: 2:30 to 5:00, depending on extent of explorations
Difficulty: Wide, highly maintained and manicured trail to Landscape Arch is barrier-free, suitable for wheelchairs. Most of the route beyond Landscape is on sandstone and occasionally crosses the tops of low-lying fins. Navigation is easy IF cairns are carefully followed. People with a fear of heights may experience mild exposure crossing one of the fins north of Landscape Arch.
Maps: Trails Illustrated: Arches National Park; Mollie Hogans, Utah 7.5 Quad
Latest Date Hiked: October 30, 2014
Quote: Men come and go, cities rise and fall, whole civilizations appear and disappear--the earth remains, slightly modified. The earth remains, and the heartbreaking beauty where there are no hearts to break. Turning Plato and Hegel on their heads I sometimes choose to think, no doubt perversely, that man is a dream, thought an illusion, and only rock is real. Rock and sun. Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire
Route: The beauty of this stem and loop is that any portion may be undertaken separately or in combination. The majority of people turn around at Landscape Arch. For those unsure of their desert backcountry prowess, go to Double O Arch before committing to the Primitive Trail. Most will think the loop is the definition of fun. However, I have assisted lost hikers (one group missed Double O Arch entirely), and people alarmed by short friction pitches. Do not venture on the Primitive Trail if rock is snow or ice covered.

From the trailhead, elevation 5,155 feet, on a wide, firm track enter a labyrinth of Entrada Sandstone. Fins provide a sense of intimacy and enclosure.

This is an excellent hike for children with proven hiking ability. A sandslide corridor comes up shortly on the left and all playful hearts will race.

The 0.5 mile roundtrip spur to Pine Tree Arch and Tunnel Arch takes off on the right at 0.3 mile. The main trail is not a wilderness or private experience. However, the contemplative's heart may be satisfied steps away in other regions of the park and certainly in the greater Moab topography. Walk to the accompaniment of the world-wide language of euphoria. A woman seated in an electric wheelchair exclaimed, "I'm going as far as I can!" Considering the immaculately groomed trail in this image, she made it to Landscape Arch.

At 0.9 mile, Landscape Arch, while it fills the visual frame, sneaks up on the unaware. It is an improbably thin ribbon below the horizon. A few more steps and the merest strip of Utah blue emerges, giving the arch away. Years ago, I stood directly under the arch. In 1991, it lost a sizable chunk of itself to natural weathering and is now fenced off. A placard display tells the story. Directly across from the placard, the Primitive Trail branches off for those hiking in the counter-clockwise direction. From the main trail a short spur towards the arch affords the best photographs.

Double O Arch is 1.2 miles northwest of Landscape on a pleasingly natural trail. Walk up a rock ramp. The experience is at once bounded and expansive. Follow the cairns; they will delight and surprise.

At 1.3 miles, there is a sign for a left spur to Navajo Arch (0.3 miles roundtrip) and Partition Arch (0.5 miles roundtrip). At 1.7 miles the route climbs to the top of a wide, flat fin (shown) and traverses the length of it. While most people will relish the view of Book Cliffs north of I-70 and finlandia below, those with a fear of heights may need encouragement.

Assuming no side trips, Double O Arch is at 2.1 miles on the left. It is named for the two circular openings stacked on top of each other. As can be seen in this image, the lower arch is quite small yet it carries its hefty companion.

A juniper log helps when clambering up and through the lower arch. This is a must.

The best view of the pair is from the other side.

The obelisk Dark Angel is 0.5 miles to the north.

Return through the arch and find this trail junction. If you've had enough adventuring, return to the trailhead as you came. For those excited for more, the Primitive Trail awaits.

The 0.5 mile roundtrip trail to Private Arch heads off to the right, 0.5 mile from Double O. Chances are excellent that you will garner solitude at this arch.

There is a crazy abundance of off-trail play in this area. Everywhere is an entrance into restricted space. Go into the squeeze, climbing cracks between fins. Give in to your irresistible desire to walk on fin spines. Some are nearly flat; others will test the stickiness of your boot soles. In this image the "Book End Fins" are some distance to the south. The rules are simple: stay on the rock and off the top of arches and cryptobiotic soil.

Obviously, our route must follow the dictates of the landscape so keep a sharp eye out for cairns. If you do find yourself no longer in the company of those reassuring rock piles, follow the time-honored practice of promptly returning to the last one you were sure of. Now locate the next cairn and proceed. In this image, a cairn shows the least troublesome route up and over a fin at its lowest point. When the rock is dry, it is easy enough. If the rock is wet, it is slick. However, the pitches are never terribly exposed. The steep slab that gets my attention requires just a few steps to skirt a pool.

The park really should be called Fins and Arches National Park. In the distance, two teens explore fin-top.

After 0.1 mile in a wash, the trail gradually climbs out of the maze of stone. Here is a look back at the terrain that contains the Primitive Trail.

Half a mile before rejoining the main trail at Landscape Arch (take another look!), the track becomes sandy as it heads south. Plants in this area include Indian rice grass, euphedra, juniper, sage, yucca, and rabbitbrush. The La Sal Mountains are in the background. From Landscape, it is a quick 0.9 mile walk back to the trailhead.

Arches are defined by emptiness, space between stone. The park has the largest concentration of natural stone arches in the world, 2,000 and counting. To qualify, the opening must be at least three feet long in any one direction. The skyhole can be a mere slit.

For photos of the Devils Garden Campground and information on road riding in Arches, please see the end of the Delicate Arch travelogue.